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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 3: Therapeutic vascular protection. On account of its reversibility and link to atherogenesis, endothelial dysfunction represents an important potential therapeutic target. Current therapies including statins, aspirin, and individual DMARDs offer some vasculoprotection. Emerging evidence suggests antitumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 may also reduce the risk of cardiovascular events while data for tocilizumab, rituximab, and other biologic therapies are awaited. The switch from endothelial dysfunction to endothelial homeostasis is influenced by activity of a variety of genes including eNOS, HO-1, A1, A20, prostacyclin, MnSOD, and thrombomodulin. Important transcriptional pathways include AMPK, ERK5, CREB1, KLF2, KLF4, and Nrf2. The role of microRNAs in regulating responses in the vasculature is increasingly understood. AMPK: AMP: Activated protein kinase, Bcl-2: B-cell lymphoma protein, CRE: CAMP response element, eNOS: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase, HO-1: Heme oxygenase-1, KLF: Kruppel-like factor, MnSOD: Manganese superoxide dismutase, NO: Nitric oxide, Nrf2: NF-E2-related factor-2, PGI2: Prostacyclin

Figure 3: Therapeutic vascular protection. On account of its reversibility and link to atherogenesis, endothelial dysfunction represents an important potential therapeutic target. Current therapies including statins, aspirin, and individual DMARDs offer some vasculoprotection. Emerging evidence suggests antitumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 may also reduce the risk of cardiovascular events while data for tocilizumab, rituximab, and other biologic therapies are awaited. The switch from endothelial dysfunction to endothelial homeostasis is influenced by activity of a variety of genes including eNOS, HO-1, A1, A20, prostacyclin, MnSOD, and thrombomodulin. Important transcriptional pathways include AMPK, ERK5, CREB1, KLF2, KLF4, and Nrf2. The role of microRNAs in regulating responses in the vasculature is increasingly understood. AMPK: AMP: Activated protein kinase, Bcl-2: B-cell lymphoma protein, CRE: CAMP response element, eNOS: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase, HO-1: Heme oxygenase-1, KLF: Kruppel-like factor, MnSOD: Manganese superoxide dismutase, NO: Nitric oxide, Nrf2: NF-E2-related factor-2, PGI2: Prostacyclin