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TOPICAL REVIEW
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 304-311

Sustained remission in large-Vessel vasculitis: Do they ever burn out?


1 Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
2 Centre for Arthritis and Rheumatism Excellence, Cochin, Kerala, India
3 Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Ramnath Misra
Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow - 226 014, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/injr.injr_182_19

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Drug-free remission is the ideal end point for any chronic disease. Although there are data on drug-free remission in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, such data are limited for most vasculitis. Notably, there is less evidence for disease-modifying agents in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV). Thus, we explored the literature about sustained remission in LVV. MEDLINE and SCOPUS were searched for outcomes in LVV, and the results were manually screened for studies with at least 1-year follow-up. Isolated polymyalgia rheumatica was not included. In giant cell arteritis (GCA), histological and clinical remissions were discordant. Histology could not predict relapse rate. Various imaging techniques exhibit vessel wall inflammation in clinically quiescent disease. Relapse rate seems to correlate with the rate of steroid reduction. Relapse was rare when on higher steroid doses. Emerging evidence suggests that tocilizumab and methotrexate may prevent relapse. In Takayasu arteritis (TA), histology specimens are difficult to obtain. Remission on imaging does not mirror clinical remission. While magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography are sensitive tools, these cannot differentiate smouldering disease from vascular repair. The best predictor of relapse is the extent of disease. Approximately half of the TA patients relapsed by 5 years. In patients undergoing intravascular procedures, restenosis occurred in around a third. Even for patients on anti- Tumour necrosis factor necrosis factor, sustained remission was in 20% only. LVV seems to be steroid dependent, and the efficacy of various steroid-sparing agents cannot be established unless the natural history of the disease is known. Both TA and GCA can have grumbling courses with relapse rates increasing over time.


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