Serum levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1, and cystatin-C in renal artery stenosis: A pilot study
Raghunandan Prasad1, Reeta Choudhary2, Anuradha Singh1, Surabhi Agarwal1, P Kaushik1, Kritika Singh3, Rajanikant R Yadav1, Amar Singh Yadav1, Dharmendra Singh Bhadauria4, Hira Lal1
1 Department of Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Medanta – The Medicity, Gurugram, Haryana, India
3 Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Nephology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
Department of Biochemistry, Medanta – The Medicity, Gurugram - 122 001, Haryana
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: The present pilot study evaluated the potential of newer renal biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], cystatin-C [Cys-c], and kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1]) in estimating subclinical renal injury due to renal artery stenosis (RAS).
Materials and Methods: A total of 13 patients of magnetic resonance angiography confirmed RAS and 14 normotensive healthy controls were enrolled in the study after obtaining ethics approval and informed consent. Serum was collected from participants to check for serum levels of NGAL, KIM-1, and Cys-c by quantitative enzyme immunoassay. The data of RAS patients were compared and analyzed against the data of healthy controls.
Results: sNGAL, sKIM-1, and sCys-c values in RAS patients showed rising trend as compared to normal healthy control; however, the difference in their values was not statistically significant. This could be due to small and heterogeneous sample size. However, statistically significant difference was noted in the values of sNGAL and sCys-c between healthy controls and RAS patients with abnormal serum creatinine. This difference in the values of these biomarkers was also statistically significant between RAS patients with normal and elevated serum creatinine.
Conclusion: In RAS patients, sNGAL, sCys-c, and sKIM-1 seem to have potential as an early biomarker of kidney injury.